Timeline of The History of Image Acquisition.
♦ Neanderthal– Cave paintings, very advanced findings, some theories that they had ‘photographic memories’ – http://www.artchive.com/artchive/c/cave/cave_painting_horse.jpg.html
♦ Ancient Times– Hieroglyphics found on scrolls, walls of pyramids and ancient artifacts- Hieroglyphics were images that represented language. – Portraits and paintings of stories and myths such as after life, pharaoh’s, and other leaders.
♦ Ancient Times– Ancient Greece- Stories told through paintings on vases and temple walls.
♦ 1800– Thomas Wedgewood creates ‘sun pictures’ – Placing opaque objects on silver nitrate treated leather.
♦ 1816– Nicéphore Niepce combinded camera obscura with photosensitive paper.
♦ 1830– new discovery! certain chemicals reacted to light to create images
♦ 1834– Henry Fox Talbort created ‘Mouse Traps’ which produced negative prints. “Within a few months, he began to experiment with the idea that had occurred to him at Lake Como and soon found that a sheet of fine writing paper, coated with salt and brushed with a solution of silver nitrate, darkened in the sun, and that a second coating of salt impeded further darkening or fading. Talbot used this discovery to make precise tracings of botanical specimens: he set a pressed leaf or plant on a piece of sensitized paper, covered it with a sheet of glass, and set it in the sun. Wherever the light struck, the paper darkened, but wherever the plant blocked the light, it remained white. He called his new discovery “the art of photogenic drawing.”-http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/tlbt/hd_tlbt.htm
♦ 1839– Louis Daguerre- Creates the ‘Daguerreotype’ – experimenting with fixing images into sheets of metal and mirror “fixing shadows” he started experimenting in 1824, but perfected the art in 1839- looks like a polaroid.
♦ 1839– John Herschel experiments with hyposulfite of soda and creates first glass negative.
♦ 1861– First colour photograph taken by James Clerk- Maxwell – Black and white images through red, green and blue filters. http://alancook.wordpress.com/tag/the-first-colour-photograph/
♦ 1871– Dr Richard Leech Maddox uses an emulsion of gelatine and silver bromide on glass to create the first dry plate. http://www.xtimeline.com/evt/view.aspx?id=871135 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Richard_Leach_Maddox
♦ 1878- Dry plates are being manufactured.
♦ 1885- first Kodak camera. –> revolutionized photography, mass production of film rolls.. ‘you press the button and we do the rest’ not actual photography as the camera is doing the work not you…
♦ 1900– George Eastman sets up a dry plate company- Half tone photography appears in New York Graphic.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Eastman
♦ 1924– First Leica camera manufactured- 35mm http://www.ph.utexas.edu/~yue/misc/LeicaLTM.html
♦ 1931- Henri Cartier- Bresson begins his 60 year career in Photography http://erickimphotography.com/blog/2011/08/10-things-henri-cartier-bresson-can-teach-you-about-street-photography/
♦ 1933– First SLR camera began in 1933-1976… began in Germany but the factories were bombed during Word War 2.
♦ 1934– Fuji Started up their brand.
♦ 1959– first system camera Nikon
♦ 1965– instant camera, polaroid, Edwin Land, Model 95, Model 20.
♦ 1986- Fuji created first disposable camera- single use cameras are now Eco-friendly
♦ 1991- Kodak create first digital camera- Nikon F-3
Anna Atkins–> photosensitive paper.. blue paper. Place object in direct sunlight and then allow paper to go dark blue, was the image in cold water and the print of the object is visable.
WORLD WAR 2–> affected photography as factorys which were producing cameras were bombed during the war.. e.g Ihagee.
Camera Obscura –>Artists used this revolutionary technique which involved a blacked out room with a tiny hole which projected direct light onto a flat surface, the projection would be colour. David Hockney discovered this and used this theory to answer why paintings were perfect in the 1500’s. This technique explained why paintings had taken a dramatic improvement around this time.
“The term ‘camera obscura’ means ‘dark chamber’, because the instrument up until the 16th century typically took the form of a closed room, the windows shuttered, with a small hole in a blind or door. Light entering the room through the hole then cast an image onto a screen or onto the wall opposite the door.” http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/vermeer_camera_01.shtml
–> Dutch master Johannes Vermeer.. This artist made frequent use of the ‘Camera Obscura’ technique to help develop his paintings.